Union forces waged a long campaign to conquer Vicksburg and gain control of the lower Mississippi River. The effort culminated in a concentrated military attack that started May 18, 1863, and a siege that started eight days later. Confederate forces surrendered the city on July 4.
History buffs are traveling to battlegrounds to mark the 150th anniversary of the Civil War from 2011 to 2015.
Vicksburg officials said they decided more than a year ago that it would be prudent to set their sesquicentennial commemoration to coincide with the beginning of the siege, rather than the end, specifically so travelers wouldn’t have to choose between Vicksburg and Gettysburg if they wanted to visit both places.
“Vicksburg, it’s a protracted campaign. Some historians call it one of the greatest campaigns in North America,” said Rick Martin, chief of operations for the Vicksburg National Military Park. “But, it’s 18 months to try to take Vicksburg. There’s not any flashy battle like what happened at Gettysburg.”
Gettysburg and Vicksburg, combined, weakened the Confederacy and gave momentum to Union forces.
Vicksburg had 19,233 dead, wounded or missing: 10,142 Union and 9,091 Confederate.
But Gettysburg’s numbers were higher: 23,000 Union and 28,000 Confederate.
“Fast forward 150 years later, and it still has the notoriety that it had then, or more,” Martin said of Gettysburg.
Gettysburg is relatively close to the major metropolitan areas of Washington and Baltimore, which made it more accessible to war correspondents at the time. Vicksburg was a distant outpost with few reporters or illustrators, so it received less attention in 1863. But, Vicksburg was strategically important.
Because of the city’s location on the bluffs of the Mississippi River, President Abraham Lincoln called Vicksburg the key to the Confederacy: “The war can never be brought to a close until that key is in our pocket....We can take all the northern ports of the Confederacy, and they can defy us from Vicksburg.”
The Union had already captured New Orleans in 1862. Once Vicksburg fell, the Union controlled the Mississippi River, and the Confederacy was split.
Concerts, lectures and wreath-laying ceremonies are scheduled for the next several days at the Vicksburg National Military Park. The sprawling battlefield has 16 miles of roads that wind through woods and grassy hills, and it’s dotted with statues and stone monuments honoring soldiers who fought there.
On Thursday, the U.S. Postal Service unveiled a Vicksburg stamp that’s part of a Civil War commemorative series.
On Saturday, Iowa Gov. Terry Branstad will be in town to rededicate his state’s monument in the military park. The park’s website (http://1.usa.gov/13LW2d0) lists three artillery groups, three cavalry groups and 38 infantry groups from Iowa that fought at Vicksburg.